Recently I've been looking at real-time applications from two different angles: (1) audio applications and (2) advanced robotics. When developing live audio production applications, the audio data must be written to the sound card at a constant frequency with low latency. Missing the deadline generally results in pops and cracks emitted by the speaker. When developing advanced controllers for a robot, the system also must read, compute, and write data to the hardware at a constant frequency with low latency. Failure to do so can result in the controller becoming unstable, potentially causing damage to property and life.
This is a series where I document my journey on real-time C++ development on Linux. While there are lots of materials out there, ranging from blog posts and presentations, to PhD thesis and journal articles, they tend to cover only a subset of the problem that combines real-time, C++, and Linux together. As a result, I found it difficult to tie everything I have read together to create a real-time C++ application for Linux from scratch. This series hopefully addresses that problem in a way that's coherent and correct.
What is "real-time"?
Before I get started, it's perhaps a good idea to first review what "real-time" is. From the Wikipedia definition, a "real-time program must guarantee response within specified time constraints, often referred to as 'deadlines'". This definition, in my opinion, is vague and perhaps too broad. For example, is a messaging app a real-time program? Under the above definition, you could argue that it is, as the message delivery time likely should remain bounded for the message to be helpful for me and my friends. What about a video game where each frame should be rendered within 1/60th of a second?
To better distinguish the different types of real-time systems, we can place a particular piece of software on two independent axes: maximum allowed latency and consequence severity of missed deadline. With these two axes, I can plot (subjectively) as follows:
I like this two-axes system, as each application is unique and must be evaluated individually. That said, this is not how applications are typically classified in the literature. Instead, there are a lot of references to "hard" and "soft" real-time systems, which are not consistently defined everywhere. "Hard" real-time systems tend to be the ones in the top-left corner of the above chart where you have very-low-latency requirements as well as safety-related consequences for missing deadlines. Some common examples of these are aircraft or robot control systems and medical monitoring systems. "Soft" real-time systems tend to the ones on the middle-center of the chart, where the latency requirement is difficult to achieve on traditional desktop operating systems and the consequence of an occasional deadline miss is undesirable but somewhat tolerable. The best example of this would be audio production, where the latency must not be perceivable to the musicians.
These terminologies, in my opinion, are just mostly arguing semantics (with perhaps the exception of the mathematically-proven systems). All software systems are "real-time" to some extent. If you pressed a key on your computer , and it didn't respond for a few minutes, you'll likely forcefully reboot it. If this happens all the time, you'll either throw the computer out, or at least install a different operating system on which this doesn't happen. Thus, the answer to the question of "what is real-time" is "it depends". The requirements of the application dictate what kind of guarantees you need from your code, the libraries you call, the operating system you use, and the hardware you deploy on. If you write an application today with off-the-shelf operating systems and hardware, deadlines are basically guaranteed to be met if they are large enough (≥10-100 milliseconds) and if the application is written correctly (e.g. don't sleep in a time-critical section). However, if the deadline is within a few milliseconds, and if the consequence of missing such a deadline is not acceptable, the code likely will have to be "real-time". This means the developer has to pay more attention into the libraries, operating system, and the hardware that the application relies on.
|||There is a (classic) school of thought where "hard" real-time systems are the ones that are mathematically provable. If I had to pick a definition, I would say that a hard real-time system is a mathematically-proven one where as everything else would be a soft real-time system. Under this model, I suspect only a few systems would be hard real-time.|
Overview of latency sources
To be able to develop an application that can meet its deadlines every time, the developer must be able to predict the worst-case execution time of every line of code that runs. As shown in the diagram above (which is not to scale), there are three sources of latency for most applications: (1) the application, (2) the operating system and its scheduler, and (3) the hardware.
In the simplest case, the hardware executes a single thread of code that you have written. An example of this would be something like an Arduino. In such a system, the worst-case latency is purely caused by the application latency (green in the plot), as there are no operating system or firmware-level code executing on the CPU. In this situation, the worst-case latency can be relatively easily deduced by reading through the code in a line-by-line fashion and performing benchmarks. This architecture becomes less and less viable as more computations and IO operations are added in the main loop of the program. Certain operations, such as disk writes, can be very slow. Once added to the main loop, these long-running operations can block the execution of the time-critical code and cause it to miss its deadlines. Thus, other program architectures are required for such complex real-time systems to meet its deadlines.
On the opposite side of the spectrum with respect to the Arduino-like code are the applications written for a traditional operating system (OS) such as Linux. Although thousands of tasks may share a few CPUs, application code written for these OSes are not affected by the presence of these other tasks. In fact, I would argue that the experience of writing a single-threaded application on an OS like Linux feels very similar to writing Arduino-like code. The operating system schedules the execution of tasks via its scheduler and switches between these tasks as it sees fit, generally without any specialized code within the application. This allows your computer to both perform a computationally-heavy task such as running a simulation at the same time as responding to key presses in a timely manner. The ability to balance between computational throughput and IO latency is one of the key pieces of "magic" provided by the OS. However, this magic has a cost that cannot be ignored for real-time systems. The worst-case time cost of the OS scheduler must be bounded and known to successfully develop a real-time application. This is what is labeled as "scheduling latency" in the above figure, and it occurs before the application code executes.
Finally, the hardware itself may introduce additional latency via a number of completely different mechanisms. The most famous example is the system management interrupt (SMI), which can introduce an unpredictable amount of delay as it hijacks the CPU from both the application and the operating system. Further, a modern CPU usually has dynamic frequency scaling based on its utilization to provide a balance between performance and power consumption. This can cause larger-than-expected delays as the system performance is not uniform with respect to time. Other factors like SMT (more commonly referred to as hyper-threading) can also impact latency. I have even seen bad clocks on a single-board computer causing higher-than-expected latency. I have lumped these, as well as other sources of hardware-related latency not listed here, together as the "hardware latency". The latency of the hardware must be determined via benchmarks and (possibly) tuned to ensure the success of a real-time system.
|||See chapter 1 of Siewert, S., & Pratt, J. (2015). Real-Time Embedded Components and Systems with Linux and RTOS for a more comprehensive review on real-time architectures.|
|||To learn more about this, see context switch.|
|||The latency comes from more than just the scheduler. To learn more about this for Linux, check out this talk. It also includes some examples of hardware-induced latency.|
|||See this page as a start for other sources of hardware latency.|
In the first part of this series, we've defined what a "real-time system" is. We've also summarized the terminology of "soft" and "hard" real-time systems with the conclusion that the definition is not universally agreed upon. However, given that present technologies can only achieve deadlines above the orders of 10 milliseconds, applications such as robotics controllers that have deadlines of a few milliseconds require the careful examination and validation of the hardware, operating system, and the application code.
In the next post, I will write a very simple program that can achieve a maximum latency of 1ms and configure it to run on Linux.